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Academia.EDU

Academia.EDU

 Academia.EDU

 

IntroductionUntitled

Academia.edu is a website where researchers can post their articles and discover and read articles posted by others. It combines the archival role of repositories like ArXiv, SSRN, or PubMed with social networking features, such as profiles, news feeds, recom-mendations, and the ability to follow individuals and topics. The site launched in 2008 and as of April 2015 has approximately 20 million registered users who have uploaded approximately five million articles. Registration on the site is free and users can freely download all papers posted to the site.

There is a large body of research on the citation advantage of open access articles, and researchers are still debating the size and causes of the advantage. Some studies have found that open access articles receive substantially more citations than pay-for-access articles, even after controlling for characteristics of the articles and their authors (Eysenbach 2006; Gargouri et al. 2010). Other studies using experimental and quasi-experimental methods have concluded that any measured citation advantage is mostly due to selection bias and other unobserved differences between free and paid articles (Davis et al. 2008; Davis 2011; Gaule and Maystre 2011).

Both the supportive and critical studies have focused on the accessibility of articles: once found, can the article be obtained for free? They have given less consideration to the discoverability of articles: how easily can the article be found? This makes sense; the methods researchers often use to find articles don’t privilege open access over paid sources or vice versa. Google Scholar, for example, returns both free and paid sources, as do many library databases.

Academia.edu, on the other hand, has unique features for discovering articles, making it an interesting venue for analyzing a citation advantage. Users are notified when au-thors they follow post articles to the site. They can then share those articles with their followers. A user can tag an article with a subject like “High Energy Physics” and users following that subject will be notified about the paper.

A number of users have reported to the Academia.edu team that they observed in-creased citations after posting their articles to the site (Academia.edu 2012; 2013). Motivated by those anecdotal reports, a formal statistical analysis was conducted of the citation advantage associated with posting an article.

   Members of team 

  • RICHARD PRICE  -Chief Executive Officer
  • BEN LUND – Chief Technology Officer
  • DAVID JUDD – Senior Software Engineer
  • NATE SULLIVAN – Software Engineer
  • KEVIN WU – Software Engineer
  • ADNAN AKIL – Product Director
  • KATE MILTENBERGER – User Operations
  • PAT BRINICH-LANGLOIS – Software Engineer
  • SAMBRIDI GAUTAM – Software Enginee
  • CONWAY ANDERSON – VP of Product
  • EDD KING – Software Engineer
  • DAVE PETERSON – Senior Software Engineer
  • SAPAN UPADHYAY – Software Engineer
  • VIJAY RUDRARAJU – Software Engineer
  • STUART LIROFF – VP of Talent
  • ALEXEY CHERNIKOV – Software Engineer
  • JONATHAN MARTIN – Software Engineer
  • TIFFANY SUN – Office Manager
  • ANDY CREETH – Software Engineer
  • BRYNN GITT – Software Engineer

Terms of Use

Academia, Inc. (“Academia.edu” or “we“) offers a social networking service which enables its users, including graduate students and academics, to create academic profile pages and to connect with other users, including graduate students and academics, around the world with the same research interests (the “Services”) through our website, accessible at academia.edu (the “Site”). Please read carefully the following terms and conditions (“Terms”) and our Privacy Policy, which may be found at academia.edu/privacy and which is incorporated by reference into these Terms. These Terms govern your access to and use of the Site, Services and Collective Content (defined below), and constitute a binding legal agreement between you and Academia.edu.

Key Content-related Terms

Content” means text, graphics, images, music, software, audio, video, information or other works of authorship.

Academia.edu Content” means Content that Academia.edu makes available through the Site or Services, including any Content licensed from a third party, but excluding Member Content.

Member” means a person who completes Academia.edu’sACCOUNT registration process, as described under the Account Registration” section below.

Member Content” means Content that a Member posts, uploads, publishes, submits or transmits to be made available through the Site or Services.

Collective Content” means, collectively, Academia.edu Content and Member Content.

Certain areas of the Site (and your access to or use of certain Services or Collective Content) may have different terms and conditions posted or may require you to agree with and accept additional terms and conditions. If there is a conflict between these Terms and terms and conditions posted for a specific area of the Site, Services or Collective Content, the latter terms and conditions will take precedence with respect to your use of or access to that area of the Site, Services or Collective Content, as applicable.

YOU ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT, BY ACCESSING OR USING THE SITE OR SERVICES OR BY DOWNLOADING OR POSTING ANY CONTENT FROM OR ON THE SITE OR THROUGH THE SERVICES, YOU ARE INDICATING THAT YOU HAVE READ, AND THAT YOU UNDERSTAND AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY, THESE TERMS, WHETHER OR NOT YOU HAVEREGISTERED ON OR THROUGH THE SITE. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THESE TERMS, THEN YOU HAVE NO RIGHT TO ACCESS OR USE THE SITE, SERVICES OR COLLECTIVE CONTENT. If you accept or agree to these Terms on behalf of a company, university or other legal entity, you represent and warrant that you have the authority to bind that company, university or other legal entity to these Terms and, in such event, “you” and “your” will refer and apply to that company or other legal entity.

Modification

Academia.edu reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to modify the Site, Services and these Terms, at any time and without prior notice. If we modify these Terms we will post the modification on the Site or provide you with notice of the modification. We will also update the “Last Updated Date” at the top of these Terms. By continuing to access or use the Site or Services after we have posted a modification on the Site or have provided you with notice of a modification, you are indicating that you agree to be bound by the modified Terms. If the modified Terms are not acceptable to you, your only recourse is to cease using the Site and Services.

Eligibility

The Site and Services are intended solely for persons who are 13 years of age or older. Any access to or use of the Site or Services by anyone under the age of 13 is expressly prohibited. By accessing or using the Site or Services you represent and warrant that you are 13 years of age or older.

ACCOUNTRegistration

In order to access certain features of the Site and Services and to post any Member Content on the Site or through the Services you must register to create anACCOUNT (“ACCOUNT”) and become a Member.

You may register directly via the Site or by logging into yourACCOUNT with certain third party social media or social networking sites (“SNS”) (including, but not limited to, Facebook) via the Site, as described herein. If you decide to register through an SNS, we will extract the personal information you have provided to the SNS (such as your “real” name, email address and other information you make publicly available via the SNS) from theACCOUNT you have with the applicable SNS and use that information to create yourACCOUNT. The specific information that we extract may depend on the privacy settings you have with the SNS. You hereby consent to our access to and collection of such personal information about you. During the registration process, you will be required to provide certain information and you will establish a username and a password.

You agree to provide accurate, current and complete information during the registration process and to update such information to keep it accurate, current and complete. Academia.edu reserves the right to suspend or terminate your Account if any information provided during the registration process or thereafter proves to be inaccurate, not current or incomplete. You are responsible for safeguarding your password. You agree that you will not disclose your password to any third party and that you will take sole responsibility for any activities or actions under your Account, whether or not you have authorized such activities or actions. You will immediately notify Academia.edu of any unauthorized use of your Account.

Privacy

See Academia.edu’s Privacy Policy at academia.edu/privacy for information and notices concerning Academia.edu’s collection and use of your personal information.

Ownership

The Site, Services and Collective Content are protected by copyright, trademark, and other laws of the United States and foreign countries. You acknowledge and agree that the Site, Services and Collective Content, including all associated intellectual property rights, are the exclusive property of Academia.edu and its licensors. You will not remove, alter or obscure any copyright, trademark, service mark or other proprietary rights notices incorporated in or accompanying the Site, Services or Collective Content.

Licenses Granted by Academia.edu to Academia.edu Content and Member Content

Subject to your compliance with the terms and conditions of these Terms, Academia.edu authorizes you to download, view and print any Academia.edu Content, solely for your personal and non-commercial purposes, and to access and use the Site and Services, including to download, view and print any Member Content solely for your personal and non-commercial purposes, and subject to the restrictions set forth in these Terms. You have no right to sublicense the license rights granted in this section.

You will not use, copy, adapt, modify, prepare derivative works based upon, distribute, license, sell, transfer, publicly display, publicly perform, transmit, stream, broadcast or otherwise exploit the Site, Services or Collective Content, except as expressly permitted in these Terms. No licenses or rights are granted to you by implication or otherwise under any intellectual property rights owned or controlled by Academia.edu or its licensors, except for the licenses and rights expressly granted in these Terms.

License granted by Member

We may, in our sole discretion, permit Members to post, upload, publish, submit or transmit Member Content. By making any Member Content available through the Site or Services, you hereby grant to Academia.edu a worldwide, non-exclusive, transferable, sublicenseable, perpetual, royalty-free license to reproduce, modify for formatting purposes, prepare derivative works based upon, publicly display, publicly perform, distribute, and otherwise use your Member Content in connection with operating and providing the Services and Content to you and to other Members. Academia.edu does not claim any ownership rights in any Member Content and nothing in these Terms will be deemed to restrict any rights that you may have to use and exploit any Member Content.

You acknowledge and agree that you are solely responsible for all Member Content that you make available through the Site or Services. Accordingly, you represent and warrant that: (i) you either are the sole and exclusive owner of all Member Content that you make available through the Site or Services or you have all rights, licenses, consents and releases that are necessary to grant to Academia.edu the rights in such Member Content, as contemplated under these Terms; and (ii) neither the Member Content nor your posting, uploading, publication, submission or transmittal of the Member Content or Academia.edu’s use of the Member Content (or any portion thereof) on, through or by means of the Site or Services will infringe, misappropriate or violate a third party’s patent, copyright, trademark,TRADE secret, moral rights or other intellectual property rights, or rights of publicity or privacy, or result in the violation of any applicable law or regulation.

Content from Social Media and Networking Sites

As part of the functionality of the Site and Services, you may link yourACCOUNT with online accounts you may have with third party service providers (each suchACCOUNT, a “Third Party Account”) by either: (i) providing your Third PartyACCOUNT login information to Academia.edu through the Site or Services; or (ii) allowing Academia.edu to access your Third Party Account, as is permitted under the applicable terms and conditions that govern your use of each Third Party Account. You represent that you are entitled to disclose your Third Party Account login information to Academia.edu and/or to grant Academia.edu access to your Third Party Account (including, but not limited to, for use for the purposes described herein), without breach by you of any of the terms and conditions that govern your use of the applicable Third Party Account and without obligating Academia.edu to pay any fees or making Academia.edu subject to any usage limitations imposed by such third party service providers.

By granting Academia.edu access to any Third Party Accounts, you understand that Academia.edu will access, make available and store (if applicable) any Content that you have provided to and stored in your Third PartyACCOUNT (“Third Party Account Content”) so that it is available on and through the Site and Services via your Account. Unless otherwise specified in these Terms, all Third Party Account Content, if any, will be considered to be Member Content for all purposes of these Terms. Depending on the Third Party Accounts you choose and subject to the privacy settings that you have set in such Third Party Accounts, personally identifiable information that you post to your Third Party Accounts will be available on and through your Account on the Site and Services. Please note that if a Third Party Account or associated service becomes unavailable or Academia.edu’s access to such Third Party Account is terminated by the third party service provider, then the Third Party Account Content that was available from such Third Party Account will no longer be available on and through the Site and Services. You have the ability to disable the connection between your Account and your Third Party Accounts, at any time, by accessing your Account Settings page. PLEASE NOTE THAT YOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE THIRD PARTY SERVICE PROVIDERS ASSOCIATED WTH YOUR THIRD PARTY ACCOUNTS IS GOVERNED SOLELY BY YOUR AGREEMENT(S) WITH SUCH THIRD PARTY SERVICE PROVIDERS. Academia.edu makes no effort to review any Third Party Account Content for any purpose, including but not limited to, for accuracy, legality or non-infringement and Academia.edu is not responsible for any Third Party Account Content.

Feedback

We welcome and encourage you to provide feedback, comments and suggestions for improvements to the Site or Services (“Feedback”). You may submit Feedback by emailing us atfeedback@academia.edu or through the “Ideas” section of the Site. You acknowledge and agree that if you submit any Feedback to us, you hereby grant to us a non-exclusive, worldwide, perpetual, irrevocable, fully-paid, royalty-free, sub-licensable and transferable license under any and all intellectual property rights that you own or control to use, copy, modify, create derivative works based upon and otherwise exploit the Feedback for any purpose.

General Prohibitions

You agree not to do any of the following:

  • Post, upload, publish, submit or transmit any Content that: (i) infringes, misappropriates or violates a third party’s patent, copyright, trademark,TRADE secret, moral rights or other intellectual property rights, or rights of publicity or privacy; (ii) violates, or encourages any conduct that would violate, any applicable law or regulation or would give rise to civil liability; (iii) is fraudulent, knowingly false, misleading or deceptive; (iv) is defamatory, obscene, pornographic, vulgar or offensive; (v) promotes discrimination, bigotry, racism, hatred, harassment or harm against any individual or group; (vi) is violent or threatening or promotes violence or actions that are threatening to any person or entity; or (vii) promotes illegal or harmful activities or substances.
  • Use, display, mirror or frame the Site, or any individual element within the Site or Services, Academia.edu’s name, any Academia.edu trademark, logo or other proprietary information, or the layout and design of any page or form contained on a page, without Academia.edu’s express written consent;
  • Access, tamper with, or use non-public areas of the Site, Academia.edu’s computer systems, or the technical delivery systems of Academia.edu’s providers;
  • Attempt to probe, scan, or test the vulnerability of any Academia.edu system or network or breach any security or authentication measures;
  • Avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate, impair, descramble or otherwise circumvent any technological measure implemented by Academia.edu or any of Academia.edu’s providers or any other third party (including another user) to protect the Site, Services or Collective Content;
  • Attempt to access or search the Site, Services or Collective Content or download Collective Content from the Site or Services through the use of any engine, software, tool, agent, device or mechanism (including spiders, robots, crawlers, data mining tools or the like) other than the software and/or search agents provided by Academia.edu or other generally available third party web browsers;
  • Send any unsolicited or unauthorized advertising, promotional materials, email, junk mail, spam, chain letters or other form of solicitation;
  • Use any meta tags or other hidden text or metadata utilizing a Academia.edu trademark, logo URL or product name without Academia.edu’s express written consent;
  • Use the Site, Services or Collective Content for any commercial purpose or the benefit of any third party or in any manner not permitted by these Terms;
  • Forge any TCP/IP packet header or any part of the header information in any email or newsgroup posting, or in any way use the Site, Services or Collective Content to send altered, deceptive or false source-identifying information;
  • Attempt to decipher, decompile, disassemble or reverse engineer any of the software used to provide the Site, Services or Collective Content;
  • Interfere with, or attempt to interfere with, the access of any user, host or network, including, without limitation, sending a virus, overloading, flooding, spamming, or mail-bombing the Site or Services;
  • Collect or store any personally identifiable information from the Site or Services from other users of the Site or Services without their express permission;
  • Impersonate or misrepresent your affiliation with any person or entity;
  • Violate any applicable law or regulation; or
  • Encourage or enable any other individual to do any of the foregoing.

 

Academia.edu will have the right to investigate and prosecute violations of any of the above to the fullest extent of the law. Academia.edu may involve and cooperate with law enforcement authorities in prosecuting users who violate these Terms. You acknowledge that Academia.edu has no obligation to monitor your access to or use of the Site, Services or Collective Content or to review or edit any Collective Content, but has the right to do so for the purpose of operating the Site and Services, to ensure your compliance with these Terms, or to comply with applicable law or the order or requirement of a court, administrative agency or other governmental body. Academia.edu reserves the right, at any time and without prior notice, to remove or disable access to any Collective Content, including, but not limited to, Collective Content that Academia.edu, at its sole discretion, considers to be in violation of these Terms or otherwise harmful to the Site or Services.

Copyright Policy

Academia.edu respects copyright law and expects its users to do the same. It is Academia.edu’s policy to terminate, in appropriate circumstances, Members or otherACCOUNT holders who repeatedly infringe or are believed to be repeatedly infringing the rights of copyright holders. Please see Academia.edu’s Copyright Policy at academia.edu/copyright, for further information.

Links

The Site or Services may contain links to third-party websites or resources. You acknowledge and agree that Academia.edu is not responsible or liable for: (i) the availability or accuracy of such websites or resources; or (ii) the content, products, or services on or available from such websites or resources. Links to such websites or resources do not imply any endorsement by Academia.edu of such websites or resources or the content, products, or services available from such websites or resources. You acknowledge sole responsibility for and assume all risk arising from your use of any such websites or resources or the content, products, or services on or available from such websites or resources.

Termination andACCOUNT Cancellation

Academia.edu reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to discontinue or terminate the Site and Services and to terminate these Terms, at any time and without prior notice. If you breach any of these Terms, Academia.edu will have the right to suspend or disable yourACCOUNT or terminate these Terms, at its sole discretion and without prior notice to you. Academia.edu reserves the right to revoke your access to and use of the Site, Services and Collective Content at any time, with or without cause. You may cancel your Account at any time by visiting your Account Settings page and clicking on “Remove” or by sending an email to feedback@academia.edu.

Disclaimers

THE SITE, SERVICES AND COLLECTIVE CONTENT ARE PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING, ACADEMIA.EDU EXPLICITLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, QUIET ENJOYMENT OR NON-INFRINGEMENT, AND ANY WARRANTIES ARISING OUT OF COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OFTRADE. ACADEMIA.EDU MAKES NO WARRANTY THAT THE SITE, SERVICES OR COLLECTIVE CONTENT WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS OR BE AVAILABLE ON AN UNINTERRUPTED, SECURE, OR ERROR-FREE BASIS. ACADEMIA.EDU MAKES NO WARRANTY REGARDING THE QUALITY OF ANY PRODUCTS, SERVICES OR COLLECTIVE CONTENT PURCHASED OR OBTAINED THROUGH THE SITE OR SERVICES OR THE ACCURACY, TIMELINESS, TRUTHFULNESS, COMPLETENESS OR RELIABILITY OF ANY CONTENT OBTAINED THROUGH THE SITE OR SERVICES.

NO ADVICE OR INFORMATION, WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED FROM ACADEMIA.EDU OR THROUGH THE SITE, SERVICES OR COLLECTIVE CONTENT, WILL CREATE ANY WARRANTY NOT EXPRESSLY MADE HEREIN.

YOU ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL OF YOUR COMMUNICATIONS AND INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER USERS OF THE SITE AND SERVICES AND WITH OTHER PERSONS WITH WHOM YOU COMMUNICATE OR INTERACT AS A RESULT OF YOUR USE OF THE SITE OR SERVICES. YOU UNDERSTAND THAT ACADEMIA.EDU DOES NOT SCREEN OR INQUIRE INTO THE BACKGROUND OF ANY USERS OF THE SITE OR SERVICES, NOR DOES ACADEMIA.EDU MAKE ANY ATTEMPT TO VERIFY THE STATEMENTS OF USERS OF THE SITE OR SERVICES. ACADEMIA.EDU MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE CONDUCT OF USERS OF THE SITE OR SERVICES OR THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH ANY CURRENT ORFUTURE USERS OF THE SITE OR SERVICES. YOU AGREE TO TAKE REASONABLE PRECAUTIONS IN ALL COMMUNICATIONS AND INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER USERS OF THE SITE AND SERVICES AND WITH OTHER PERSONS WITH WHOM YOU COMMUNICATE OR INTERACT AS A RESULT OF YOUR USE OF THE SITE OR SERVICES, PARTICULARLY IF YOU DECIDE TO MEET OFFLINE OR IN PERSON.

Indemnity

You agree to defend, indemnify, and hold Academia.edu, its officers, directors, employees and agents, harmless from and against any claims, liabilities, damages, losses, and expenses, including, without limitation, reasonable legal andACCOUNTING fees, arising out of or in any way connected with your access to or use of the Site, Services or Collective Content, or your violation of these Terms.

Limitation of Liability

YOU ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT, TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, THE ENTIRE RISK ARISING OUT OF YOUR ACCESS TO AND USE OF THE SITE, SERVICES AND COLLECTIVE CONTENT REMAINS WITH YOU. NEITHER ACADEMIA.EDU NOR ANY OTHER person or entity involved in creating, producing, or delivering the Site, Services or Collective Content will be liable for any incidental, special, exemplary or consequential damages, INCLUDING LOST PROFITS, LOSS OF DATA OR LOSS OF GOODWILL, SERVICE INTERRUPTION, COMPUTER DAMAGE OR SYSTEM FAILURE OR THE COST OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, OR FOR ANY DAMAGES FOR PERSONAL OR BODILY INJURY OR EMOTIONAL DISTRESS arising ouT of or in connection with thESE TERMS or from the use OF or inability to use the SITE, ServiceS OR COLLECTIVE CONTENT, OR FROM ANY COMMUNICATIONS, INTERACTIONS OR MEETINGS WITH OTHER USERS OF the SITE OR SERVICES OR OTHER PERSONS WITH WHOM YOU COMMUNICATE OR INTERACT AS A RESULT OF YOUR USE OF THE SITE OR SERVICES, whether based on warranty, contract, tort (including negligence), PRODUCT LIABILITY or any other legal theory, and whether or not ACADEMIA.EDU has been informed of the possibility of such damage, EVEN IF A limited REMEDY SET FORTH HEREIN IS FOUND TO HAVE FAILED OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE.

In no event will ACADEMIA.EDU’S aggregate liability arising out of or in connection with THESE TERMS OR FROM THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE SITE, SERVICES OR COLLECTIVE CONTENT EXCEED FIFTY DOLLARS ($50). THE LIMITATIONS OF DAMAGES SET FORTH ABOVE ARE FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF THE BASIS OF THE BARGAIN BETWEEN ACADEMIA.EDU AND YOU. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

Proprietary Rights Notices

All trademarks, service marks, logos,TRADE names and any other proprietary designations of Academia.edu used herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of Academia.edu. Any other trademarks, service marks, logos, trade names and any other proprietary designations are the trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective parties.

Controlling Law

These Terms and any action related thereto will be governed by the laws of the State of California without regard to its conflict of laws provisions.

Entire Agreement

These Terms constitute the entire and exclusive understanding and agreement between Academia.edu and you regarding the Site, Services and Collective Content, and these Terms supersede and replace any and all prior oral or written understandings or agreements between Academia.edu and you regarding the Site, Services and Collective Content.

Assignment

You may not assign or transfer these Terms, by operation of law or otherwise, without Academia.edu’s prior written consent. Any attempt by you to assign or transfer these Terms, without such consent, will be null and of no effect. Academia.edu may assign or transfer these Terms, at its sole discretion, without restriction. Subject to the foregoing, these Terms will bind and inure to the benefit of the parties, their successors and permitted assigns.

Notices

Any notices or other communications permitted or required hereunder, including those regarding modifications to these Terms, will be in writing and given by Academia.edu (i) via email (in each case to the address that you provide); or (ii) by posting to the Site. For notices made by e-mail, the date of receipt will be deemed the date on which such notice is transmitted.

Notification of Copyright Infringement:

Academia.edu (“Academia.edu”) respects the intellectual property rights of others and expects its users to do the same.

It is Academia.edu’s policy, in appropriate circumstances and at its discretion, to disable and/or terminate theACCOUNTS of users who repeatedly infringe or are repeatedly charged with infringing the copyrights or other intellectual property rights of others.

In accordance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, the text of which may be found on the U.S. Copyright Office website at http://www.copyright.gov/legislation/dmca.pdf, Academia.edu will respond expeditiously to claims of copyright infringement committed using the Academia.edu website (the “Site”) that are reported to Academia.edu’s Designated Copyright Agent, identified in the sample notice below.

If you are a copyright owner, or are authorized to act on behalf of one, or authorized to act under any exclusive right under copyright, please report alleged copyright infringements taking place on or through the Sites by completing the following DMCA Notice of Alleged Infringement and delivering it to Academia.edu’s Designated Copyright Agent. Upon receipt of the Notice as described below, Academia.edu will take whatever action, in its sole discretion, it deems appropriate, including removal of the challenged material from the Sites.

What is copyright?

Copyright is a form of protection for “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic and other works, that are fixed in a tangible medium of expression. For example, copyright protects published and unpublished books, poetry, plays, movies, music scores, song recordings, computer software, photographs, paintings, and drawings. Copyright does not protect facts, ideas, inventions, systems or methods of operation, but it may protect the way in which such things are expressed.

When does copyright protection begin?

Your work is protected by copyright from the moment you create the work and fix it in a tangible form. Registration of a work with the United States Copyright Office is not required for protection in the United States, but it is generally required if you want to bring a lawsuit for infringement of your work in the United States.

How long does a copyright last?

The term of protection for a copyright depends on a number of factors, including whether the work was published, the date of first publication of the work, where a work was first published and whether the work is anonymous, pseudonymous or a work made for hire. In general, copyright protection for a work first published in the U.S. after January 1, 1978 lasts for the life of the author plus 70 years from the date of death. For a joint work that is authored by several people, copyright protection lasts for 70 years after the date of death of the last surviving author. The copyright term for an anonymous or pseudonymous work or a work made for hire is 95 years from the date of first publication or 120 years from the date of creation, whichever expires first.

Do I own my work or article? Do I have the right to post my work or article on Academia.edu?

The answers to these questions will depend upon your particular situation. The general rule is that the person who creates a work is the author and owner of the work. However, there are exceptions to that rule for works made for hire and for copyrights that have been transferred, assigned, willed or given to another party. For example, copyright ownership of a paper written by a faculty member may be determined in several ways, including by a written agreement between the university and the faculty member or by the university’s institutional policies on the ownership of copyrights for works created at the university and the allocation of royalties between the university and the author. In addition, publishers frequently require authors to transfer their copyrights to the publishers as a condition of publication. The transfer of ownership of a copyright to a publisher will prevent the author fromFUTURE use of the work unless the author has agreed with the publisher that he or she reserves his or her right to use the work for certain purposes, such as teaching, research or other non-profit educational activities, or for certain types of use, such as rights to post an electronic version of the work on the faculty member’s website or on websites like Academia.edu. Many journals will also allow an author to retain rights to all pre-publication drafts of his or her published work, which permits the author to post a pre-publication version of the work on Academia.edu. According to Sherpa, which tracks journal publishers’ approach to copyright, 90% of journals allow uploading of either the pre-print or the post-print of your paper.

May I use someone else’s work without getting permission?

In general, you should not use a copyright protected work without permission and, if you do so, the copyright owner may bring an infringement action against you. However, under the “fair use” doctrine in United States copyright law, there may be circumstances in which it is permissible to use limited portions of a work without permission, such as quoting part of a work, for purposes like commentary, criticism, news reporting, teaching, scholarship and research. Whether a particular use qualifies as a fair use is determined on a case-by-case basis depending on the specific circumstances of the use. There are no rules that permit the use of a certain number of words or percentage of a work as a “fair use.” For more information about fair use, please see the U.S. Copyright Office’s factsheet at www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html.

 

Conclusions

We have analyzed the effect of open access on citations using a novel venue for free-to-access articles, Academia.edu. Using a matching analysis and regression models with covariates to control for potential sources of selection bias, we find a substantial in-crease in citations associated with posting an article to Academia.edu. We find that a typical article posted to Academia.edu has 73% more citations than a similar paid-access article, not available elsewhere online, after five years. We find that a typical article that is also posted to Academia.edu has 64% more citations than one that is only available elsewhere online through a non-Academia.edu venue: a personal homepage, departmental homepage, journal site, or any other online hosting venue.

While the true effect of open access on citations remains debated in the literature, the effect we find here suggests that features that improve the discoverability, such as the feeds and notifications used on Academia.edu, may be important factors in determining how much open access increases citations. We believe more research along these lines would help improve our understanding of the causal mechanisms behind the open ac-cess citation advantage, help researchers make better decisions about how to provide access to their research, and help journals and institutions make their open access poli-cies more effective.

References:

  1. Job Portraits, https://medium.com/job-portraits/academia-edu-is-reimagining-research-93e3ab1a3c95
  2. Open Access Meets Discoverability: Citations to Articles Posted to Academia.edu https://www.academia.edu/12297791/Open_Access_Meets_Discoverability_Citations_to_Articles_Posted_to_Academia.edu

  3. Academia.EDU : Terms of use https://www.academia.edu/terms
  4. Academia.EDU : Policy https://www.academia.edu/copyright
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