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Hanover (Ger­man: Han­nover) is a ter­ri­tory that was at var­i­ous times a prin­ci­pal­ity within the Holy Roman Empire, an Elec­torate within the same, an inde­pen­dent King­dom, and a sub­or­di­nate Province within the King­dom of Prus­sia. The ter­ri­tory was named after its cap­i­tal, the city of Hanover, which was the prin­ci­pal town of the region from 1636. In con­tem­po­rary usage, the name is only used for the city; most of the his­tor­i­cal ter­ri­tory of Hanover forms the greater part of the Ger­man Land of Lower Sax­ony but excludes cer­tain areas.
Hanover was formed by the union of sev­eral dynas­tic divi­sions of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with the sole excep­tion of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. From 1714 to 1837, it was joined in a per­sonal union with the United King­dom, which ter­mi­nated upon the acces­sion in Britain of Queen Vic­to­ria as under the terms of Salic Law, a woman could not rule Hanover. Until 1803, when it was occu­pied by French and Pruss­ian troops, Hanover was a con­stituent state of the Holy Roman Empire; when it regained inde­pen­dence in 1814, Hanover was raised to a king­dom, which lasted until 1866.






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